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Yellow Fever in Brazil (Update 10)

18 Dec 2017

On 13 December 2017 the Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organisation published an update on yellow fever reported from mid-July to 7 October 2017 in Brazil. There were 2 cases in Sao Paulo (including 1 death) and 1 in Rio de Janeiro state. The fatality in Sao Paulo was a 76 year old man who was probably infected in Guapimirim municipality.

Forty-two unconfirmed cases are under investigation in various states, including 2 in Rio Grande do Sul, 2 in Santa Catarina and 1 probably  infected in Brasilia, Federal  District.  

From July 2017 to 9 December 2017, a total of 1 661 infections in monkeys were reported, of which 144 were confirmed for yellow fever. Most of these have been in  Sao Paulo (120) but others have been reported from Mato Grosso (1), Minas Gerais (21) and Rio de Janeiro (2). The affected areas of  Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo are the same as those affected by the outbreak in humans in 2016-2017. This suggests a continuing risk to humans, as does the continued circulation of yellow fever in monkeys during the colder months.

Recent expansion of  yellow fever into the municipality of Sao Paulo and the municipalities of Greater São Paulo (Cajamar, Caieiras, Mairipora, Franco da Rocha, Guarulhos, and Itapecerica da Serra), indicate high risk for non-immunized populations.

Advice for travellers

  • There is a risk of yellow fever in Brazil, including in São Paulo City.

  • Yellow fever risk areas in Brazil are shown here.  

  • A traveller's risk of yellow fever is determined by their general risk assessment e.g. country visited, length of stay, city or rural, activities etc.

  • Mosquito bite avoidance rules should be adhered to - the mosquito that spreads yellow fever bites predominantly during the day.Yellow fever vaccine should be considered for travellers to areas at risk of yellow fever (including São Paulo City) unless contraindicated.

For further information see Yellow Fever.