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Advice for All Destinations Vaccinations Malaria Other Health Risks Alerts News

Advice for All Destinations

COVID-19

Read the information on the COVID-19: Health Considerations for Travel page for advice on travelling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vaccinations and malaria risk

Review both the Vaccination and Malaria sections on this page to find out if you may need vaccines and/or a malaria risk assessment before you travel to this country.

If you think you require vaccines and/or malaria risk assessment, you should make an appointment with a travel health professional:

A travel health risk assessment is also advisable for some people, even when vaccines or malaria tablets are not required.

Risk prevention advice 

Many of the health risks experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccines and other measures need to be taken.

Always make sure you understand the wider risks at your destination and take precautions, including:

Our advice section gives detailed information on minimising specific health risks abroad:

Other health considerations

Make sure you have travel insurance before travel to cover healthcare abroad.

Find out if there are any restrictions you need to consider if you are travelling with medicines.

Know how to access healthcare at your destination: see the GOV.UK English speaking doctors and medical facilities: worldwide list

If you feel unwell on your return home from travelling abroad, always seek advice from a healthcare professional and let them know your travel history.

Vaccinations

  • Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, seasonal flu vaccine (if indicated), MMR, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
  • Courses or boosters usually advised: Poliomyelitis.
  • Other vaccines to consider: Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Rabies; Tetanus; Tick-borne Encephalitis; Typhoid.
  • Selectively advised vaccines - only for those individuals at highest risk: Cholera; Japanese Encephalitis.
  • Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for travellers aged 9 months or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for all travellers having transited for more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission. 

Notes on the diseases mentioned above

  • Cholera spread through consumption of contaminated water and food. It would be unusual for travellers to contract cholera if they take basic precautions with food and water and maintain a good standard of hygiene.

    Risk is higher during floods and after natural disasters, in areas with very poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water.

    Risk is highest for humanitarian aid workers; those working in refugee camps or slums; those caring for people with cholera.

  • Hepatitis A spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route.

    Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation is poor.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who inject drugs.

  • Hepatitis B spread through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse.

    Risk is higher for long stays, frequent travel and for children (exposed through cuts and scratches), those who may require medical treatment during travel.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who change partners frequently; people who inject drugs.

  • Japanese Encephalitis spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. This mosquito breeds in rice paddies and mainly bites between dusk and dawn. Risk is highest for long stay travellers to rural areas, particularly if unable to avoid mosquito bites.
  • Poliomyelitis spread mainly through person to person contact (faecal-oral route) and by consuming contaminated food and water. A total of 5 doses of polio-containing vaccine are recommended in the UK for lifetime cover. Boosters are usually recommended for travel to countries where polio remains a problem.

    Countries may require proof of polio vaccination when you leave them: check the 'Alerts' section below to see if there are any 'Polio Vaccination Exit recommendations' for this country.

  • Rabies spread through the saliva of infected animals (especially dogs, cats, bats and monkeys), usually through a bite, scratch or lick to broken skin. Risk is higher for those working or living in remote or rural areas (with no easy access to medical facilities), longer stay travellers, those planning on undertaking activities such as trekking, cycling or running in a 'high risk' country, those working with, or regularly handling animals or bats, as part of their job, and children. Even after receiving pre-travel rabies vaccine, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.
  • Tetanus spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.
  • Tick-borne Encephalitis spread mainly through tick bites. Risk is higher during the warmer months between spring to autumn. Spending long periods of time outdoors in forests or rural areas whilst undertaking outdoor activities such as camping, rambling or mountain biking increases your risk.
  • Typhoid spread mainly through consumption of contaminated food and drink. Risk is higher where access to adequate sanitation and safe water is limited.

Malaria

Malaria not normally present unless the illness was contracted abroad.

Other Health Risks

Altitude and Travel

This country has either areas with high altitude (2400m or more) or/and areas with very high altitude (3658m or more). Travellers who may go into areas of high altitude should take care to avoid ill effects of being at altitude including Acute Mountain Sickness, a potentially life-threatening condition. For further information see Altitude and Travel

Dengue Fever

A viral illness that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. The mosquito that spreads dengue bites during the day and is more common in urban areas. Symptoms include fever, headache, severe joint, bone and muscular pain - hence its other name 'breakbone fever'. There is no vaccine and prevention is through avoidance of mosquito bites. For further information see Dengue Fever

Schistosomiasis

A parasitic infection (also known as bilharzia) that is transmitted to humans through contact with fresh water. The parasite enters humans through the skin and prevention is dependant on avoidance of swimming, bathing or paddling in fresh water lakes and streams. For further information see Schistosomiasis

Alerts

COVID-19

There is a risk of exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) in this country.

Please be aware that the risk of COVID-19 in this country may change at short notice and also consider your risk of exposure in any transit countries and from travelling itself. 

  • The 'News' section on this page will advise if significant case increases or outbreaks have occurred in this country.

Prior to travel, you should:

  • Check the latest government guidance on the FCDO Foreign travel advice and country specific pages for travel to this country and the rules for entering the UK on return.
  • Ensure you are up to date with UK recommendations on COVID-19 vaccination.
  • Check if you are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. 
    • You can check this in the FAQ's.
    • If you are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 you should carefully consider your travel plans and consider seeking medical advice prior to making any decisions.

For further information, see Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and COVID-19: Health Considerations for Travel pages.

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